Excerpts “Modern Evolution: About Breeds”

“The modern horse spread throughout the habitable world because of its capability to
withstand the extremes of climactic conditions and its adaptability to the uses of man. In
these respects the horse has no equal.”

“While it is difficult to pin down an exact time frame, evidence suggests that the first
hints of domestication of the horse is to be found in the horse pens at Krasnyi Yar in
Kazakhstan, around 5000 BC. What is thought to be bit wear has been found on horse
teeth at Botai and Kazhai 1 in Kazakgstan dating around 3500-3000 BC, suggesting the
beginnings of horse domestication…”

“With the exception of its own progenitor, the Arab, the Thoroughbred has had more
influence on breeds than any other horse, and has been used to improve horse and pony
breeds throughout the world.”

Excerpt “An Introduction to Equine Pain”

“An Introduction to Equine Pain”

“Like people, horses may differ greatly in their tolerance of pain and way of exhibiting
pain. Pail tolerance and reactions to pain may also vary widely based on factors such as
the horse’s age, sex, previous experiences and even the given environment.”

“Identifying that a horse is showing pain indicators is only the first step, however; at this
point we still have to determine what is causing the pain and whether it is one isolated

problem or caused by a complex combination of smaller issues.”

Excerpt “A Horse Is A Horse, Of Course, Of Course!”

“A Horse Is A Horse, Of Course, Of Course!”

“Despite many changes to the role of the horse since domestication by humans, there
remain innate motivations and behaviours in all horses that domestication has not altered.
While horses do often have the ability to habituate to a given environment, many of their
responses are “hot-wired”, an example of this is the flight response.”

Excerpt “Evolution of the Horse”

From “Evolution of the Horse”

“A lot is known about horse evolution, as the equine fossil record is extensive. Most
of these early fossils have been found in North America; though this part of the world
is not where scientists believe the first domestication of the horse began. It has been a
complicated journey to ultimately reach today’s modern horse.”


“Phenacodus, the earliest and most primitive ancestor of the first recognized equid,
Hyracotherium, had an omnivorous diet of meat, insects, fruit and vegetables. However,
Hyracotherium had a diet of leaves and later some grass, meaning the structure of the
teeth had to change to cope with the new diet…”

“Although when standing still the horses back is straight, when in motion it allows a
springy undulating action that results in the horse’s unique way of moving with an elastic
release of energy. Other grazing creatures such as cattle and antelope, which have a
similar body shape and limbs, move in a much stiffer manner due to not having the same
internal back structure as the horse.”